Model Joint Business Group Based Knowledge for Fishermen Community Empowerment Strategies: Introduction
Development of fisheries sector in Indonesia was expected to contribute to the five important components of national development goals, namely: (1) economic growth (pro-growth), (2) expansion of employment (pro job), (3) reduction of poverty (pro poor), (4) pro-environment, and (5) mainstream (pro gender). However, until now the development of fishery resources has not shown a significant economic contribution to national development (Yafiz et al., 2009). Based on reports CBS (2011) Gross Domestic Product (GDP) more fishing than agriculture, due growth in 2007-2010 reached 27.3 percent/year. In the third quarter of 2011, the contribution of fisheries to GDP reached 19.85 percent agricultural groups or second ranks after food. Meanwhile, the increase in fisheries production has increased significantly, which in 2009 amounted to 5.1 million tons to 5.3 million tons in 2010. For the record exports in 2009 amounted to 2.48 billion dollars, and in 2010 to 2.8 billion dollars, and soared in 2011 amounted to 3.2 billion dollars. Then in 2011 to 5.4 million tons or an increase of about 1.79 percent and the achievement of export value in the period 2007 to 2011 have increased on average higher, at 9.72 percent/year.
Major fishery contributed to national economic growth, it appeared not to alter the level of welfare of the fishing communities that produce the fishery. According to the Central Statistics Agency (BPS) in 2008 mentioned, too, that the poor in Indonesia reached 34.96 million people and 63.47% of them are people who live in coastal region. While Mubyarto et al. (1984), said most of the fishermen were the ones being poor, poor, and very poor. Poverty is related to the fishing stock condition of fishery resources, the quality of human resources, infrastructure facilities services access to capital, technology and markets (Dahuri, 2008).
Fisheries resources were a promising potential in supporting the community’s economy, especially for fishermen. On the other hand, the logical consequence of the utilization of fishery resources as common property resources (common property) and is open to the public (open access), the utilization of fishery resources these days tend to exceed the carrying capacity of the resource (over exploitation) (Stanis et al, 2007).